a combination of crop and livestock where the output of one enterprise becomes the input of another enterprise thereby realize the resource efficiency. Inspiring Aspiring Women in Agriculture . Its present share in GDP is 21.8%, and this contributes to over 79% to the foreign exchange earnings of the country by exporting raw material and semi-processed and processed agricultural products. An approach in understanding the livelihood opportunities is presented in Figure 1. The project is called Strengthening Education and Agribusiness interaction for sustained employment and agricultural Development in South Africa (SEAD) and is funded by the Dutch organization Nuffic and this is part of the Orange Knowledge Programme. Sustainable Agriculture is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as: “The management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment of continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Please view list below for more information. Agroforestry is a land use system that includes the use of woody perennials and agricultural crops and / or animals in combination to achieve beneficial ecological and economic interactions for food, fibre and livestock production. A number of studies have been conducted on behalf of the Water Research Commission (WRC) in KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape and Limpopo that have sought to understand the challenges that smallholder irrigation farmers face, and to identify mechanisms to improve their water use efficiency as well as their participation in value chains. The large number of rural people and their involvement in peasant agriculture and other activities makes the … For decades, food insecurity, poverty and climatic adversity have complimented each other hampering livelihoods of the rural poor, destabilizing sustainable development of this country. “Can Farmer Organizations Transform Agricultural Research & Extension? Increasingly, rural people do not depend on agriculture alone to survive, but have diversified livelihood strategies. In economically sustainable rural communities, agriculture is perceived as a respected profession that provides an adequate living, and farmers are motivated to stay in the rural landscape rather than seeking higher income in the cities. The Institute is currently involved in various projects across the country. The project has combined formal research trials at Empangeni (Owen Sithole College of Agriculture) and Wartburg (Fountainhill Estate) with on-farm trials with smallholders at Zwelisha, Bergville and at Highflats. Natural capital and household livelihood strategies Land is one among the most fundamental and important means of production. (b) Livelihood diversification in rural Africa Although rural areas of Africa have been typically associ-ated with agriculture, the non-farm sector is an important source of employment and income. She provides empirical evidence this region is steadily becoming less agrarian (both as a long-term historical process, and as an integral part of rural households’ livelihood strategies). The overall aims of the project are to develop agroforestry systems that make effective use of available water and improve livelihoods. Through sustainable agriculture, World Neighbors helps communities develop forms of food production that are economically viable, ecologically sound, socially just and supportive of rural culture. The farmers in India maintain mixed farming system i.e. In this case, apiculture and related trades can be sources of valuable strength to countless numbers We recognise that supporting rural livelihoods should not only address technical challenges, but be aware of the social context in which livelihood decisions are made and be sensitive … It involves tough work, but it contributes to food security and the health of the nation. Agriculture is the cornerstone of human survival. In Nigeria, the main occupation of many is agriculture; although, the discovery of crude oil has made many to abandon this occupation. Agriculture is an important source of livelihood in most parts of the world. Increasingly, rural people do not depend on agriculture alone to survive, but have diversified livelihood strategies. A livelihood may be defined as the sum of ways in which households obtain the things necessary for life, both in good years and in bad. In summary, smallholder agriculture is presently a key sustainer of the majority of the world’s poorest people, so the dynamics of smallholder agriculture ought to be a central question for research and debates about development. This is a new initiative in which INR is involved, which builds on previous support provided to the Netherlands Embassy in Pretoria. Rural Livelihoods. As most poor people live in rural areas of developing countries and are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, the key to eradicating current suffering must lie in the creation of dynamic rural communities founded upon prosperous livelihood strategies (Dixon et al., 2001). The INR was formally responsible for the coordination of the Prolinnova network in South Africa from 2004 to 2010, but Brigid Letty has continued to play an informal role of coordinator since then. third economic sector of the country has the important responsibility for improving rural livelihoods by playing major role in improving the agriculture sector as majority of the population depends on it for their livelihood particularly in rural area This approach explicitly link watershed development with rural livelihoods and e+ectively poverty alleviation. Between one-quarter and one-fifth of the world's population derive their livelihood from small-scale agriculture. Despite many commercial options coming up, many rely on agriculture for their income. Copyright [2018] - Institute of Natural Resources, Business planning and development strategies for sustainable agriculture and livelihoods, Applied research in climate- and water-smart agricultural systems, Value addition, market and value chain development. Agricultural and rural development to reduce poverty and hunger Understanding how agricultural and rural development can create jobs and livelihoods for small farmers and the landless, while producing food and raw materials for the urban economy. The INR is currently involved in the implementation of a Water Research Commission (WRC) funded project investigating Micro-catchment (in-field) Rainwater Harvesting and Conservation. and yet-to-be-developed technologies could shift rural livelihoods, agriculture and the broader food systems in unexpected ways in the coming decade, both positively and negatively. 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